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Zirconia is widely employed as a material during dental implant work because of its superior esthetics. This study sought to evaluate the impact of titanium or zirconia implant abutments on epithelial attachments after ultrasonic cleaning. These implants were inserted into the extraction socket of rat maxillary first molars. Then, the length of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reaction was measured. In addition, titanium and zirconia disks were cleaned using an ultrasonic scaler, surface morphology changes were observed, and the number of epithelial cell attachments to the surface was measured. Ultimately, the surfaces of the titanium disks were easier to damage than those of the zirconia ones. There was no difference in the number of epithelial cell attachments between the two materials with the ultrasonic cleaning. The length of the HRP reaction was shorter on the zirconia implant abutment surface than on the titanium one after mechanical cleaning. In conclusion, zirconia is harder than titanium and a better choice for use in the epithelial tissue attachment. Zirconia is more suitable as a material for implant abutments than titanium.
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